Glossary

  • 3rd Party
    An independent person/consultant/company who is typically hired by the customer to examine, confirm, and authenticate someone else's work and who has no ties to or potential conflicts of interest with the individuals or organizations they are examining.
  • Acceptance
    The approval, by an authorized person, that an aspect or condition of a project meets its defined requirements and objectives.
  • Acceptance Phase
    After construction has been finished, Site Observations and Static Tests have been performed, and Pre-Functional Testing has been accepted, commissioning duties are undertaken. The primary commissioning activities undertaken during this phase are Functioning Performance testing and Owner Training to ensure that the installed systems are functional.
  • Accuracy
    Capacity of an instrument to accurately indicate the actual value of a measured amount.
  • Activities
    Individual actions or action items required to accomplish a program of works.
  • AHU
    Also known as: 'Air Handling Unit'
    
    A device that conditions and circulates air as part of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system.
  • Air Filter
    A device used, usually called a 'panel or bag filter', to remove dust, dirt, and other contaminants from the air passing through a ventilation system.
  • Air Flow Rate
    The quantity/amount of air that is moved by a ventilation system over a given period of time. [m3/s, cfm] 
  • Air Handling Unit
    Also known as: 'AHU'
    
    A device that conditions and circulates air as part of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system.
  • Air Quality Sensor
    A device that measures the concentration of pollutants or contaminants in the air, used to control ventilation systems and control/improve indoor air quality.
  • Airflow Direction
    The direction in which air is flowing through a ventilation system.
  • Airflow Measurement Device
    A device used to measure the flow rate of air in a ventilation system. Examples would be:
    
    - Anemometer
    - Pitot Tube
    - Flow Hood/Balometer
    - Thermal Anemometer
    - Differential Pressure Sensor
    - Flow Meter
  • Airflow Rate Sensor
    A sensor that measures the flow rate of air in a ventilation system, used to control the airflow rate and maintain a desired air quality.
  • Airflow Regulation
    The process of controlling the flow of air in a ventilation system to maintain the required design flow rate.
  • Airflow Volume
    The amount of air flowing through a ventilation system at a given time.
  • Analysis
    Conducting a review to identify any underlying or fundamental issues from a set of test data or observations.
  • Anemometer
    An anemometer is a handheld or fixed device that measures the speed of airflow from a grille/outlet or within a duct. They can come in many forms such as:
    
    - rotating vanes
    - hot-wire
    - thermal
  • Architect
    Changed over recent years, the architect within a construction project is usually responsible for the overall design/aesthetics of a buildings exterior and interior.
    
    They will also be deeply involved within the construction process performing an overseeing role to ensure what is being constructed meets the clients and project expectations and objectives.
  • Architectural Drawings
    Drawings that detail a buildings layout, appearance, and dimensions, they can include including floor plans, sections, elevations and specific details.
  • As-built Drawings
    Drawings that are created towards the end of a project to show the final construction information of a building and its systems, for reference by the building operator/facilities manager and engineers. Usually issues as part of the Operating and Maintenance Manual.
  • ASHRAE
    ASHRAE is an acroynm for ’American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers’
    
    In 1959, it was created from a merger of the ‘American Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning Engineers [ASHAE] and ‘The American Society of Refrigeration Engineers [ASRE].
    
    It promotes all things building services with a good focus upon The Commissioning Process and Activities.
  • Automatic Damper
    A device that opens or closes to regulate the flow of air within a ventilation system, typically controlled by a thermostat or sensor.
  • Automatic Vent
    A device installed within a ventilation system, that opens or closes automatically based on the status of its system.
  • Axial Fan
    A common type of fan that uses a series of blades mounted on a central shaft to produce a high airflow rate with low pressure.
  • Balanced Ventilation
    A ventilation system that uses a supply and exhaust fan to maintain a balanced air pressure within a building.
  • BAS
    Also known as: 'Building Automation System'
    
    A system that monitors and controls a building's systems and equipment, including heating, cooling, lighting, and other systems, using sensors and computer control.
  • Baselining
    The process of comparing present performance to a previous documented measure, or "baseline.".
  • Basis of Design
    Also known as: 'BOD'
    
    The Basis of Design supports the design process, it is a document created at the beginning of a project by the design team, to document that the projects concept, calculations, decisions, products, equipment, system selections, regulations, standards, codes, and guidelines meet the Owners Project Requirement Document [OPR].
  • Benchmarking
    Measuring the performance and or price of a facility/project, then comparing those results obtained with similar facilities/projects. 
  • Beneficial Occupation
    Also known as: 'Partial Possession'
    
    When a client moves into or uses elements of a building prior to the official handover and completion of a project.
  • Best Practice
    A design component or construction method that has attained industry-wide consensus for superior performance and usefulness.
  • Bill of Quantities
    Also known as : 'BOQ'
    
    A document that lists the quantities and costs of materials, equipment, and labor required for a building project.
  • BMS
    Also known as: 'Building Management System'
    
    BMS is short for 'Building Management System' and is used in larger buildings to control, log, and monitor its mechanical, electrical, and energy systems and equipment. 
    
    This data is provided to the building operator and facilities engineers via digital screens where the information is usually displayed on 'graphics'.
  • BOD
    Also known as: 'Basis of Design'
    
    The BOD supports the design process, it is a document created at the beginning of a project by the design team, to document that the projects concept, calculations, decisions, products, equipment, system selections, regulations, standards, codes, and guidelines meet the Owners Project Requirement Document [OPR].
  • Boiler
    A device that heats water or other types of fluid to produce steam or hot water, used in buildings for heating, process, hospitals, laboratories, cooking, or other industrial processes.
  • BOQ
    Also known as : 'Bill of Quantities'
    
    A document that lists the quantities and costs of materials, equipment, and labor required for a building project.
  • Buildability
    How easy it is to construct a project/building and its systems from its design.
  • Building Automation System
    Also known as: 'BAS'
    
    A system that monitors and controls a building's systems and equipment, including heating, cooling, lighting, and other systems, using sensors and computer control.
  • Building Code
    A set of regulations that prescribe the minimum standards for the construction, alteration, and maintenance of buildings, to ensure safety and health. Usually written and created by governmental organizations and local councils.
  • Building Energy Model
    A computer simulation that predicts the energy use and performance of a building based on its design, construction, and operating conditions.
  • Building Envelope
    The barrier that separates the internal space of a building from the exterior environment.
  • Building Management System
    Also known as: 'BMS'
    
    Used in larger buildings to control, log, and monitor its mechanical, electrical, and energy systems and equipment. 
    
    This data is provided to the building operator and facilities engineers via digital screens where the information is usually displayed on 'graphics'.
  • Building Operator
    Also known as: Facilities Department
    
    The team of engineers and operatives who will run and maintain the building and its systems during its life, after handover by the project team.
    
  • Calibration
    Calibration is completed by a laboratory on a piece of equipment or instrument to ensure that, once certificated, it is accurately measuring the correct data during site testing.
    
    Examples of items of equipment that would be calibrated are:
    
    Data Loggers | Manometers | Multimeters | Clamp Meters | Thermal Camera | Power Quality Meters | Anemometer | Airflow Capture Hood | Micromanometer | Duct Leakage Tester
  • Calibration Certificate
    A document that is provided by an independent testing laboratory proving a devices measuring capability and accuracy.
  • CCP
    Also known as: Certified Commissioning Professional
    
    Developed by The Building Commissioning Certification Board
    
    In order to improve professional standards and offer a means of certification in the building commissioning sector, the CCP designation was developed to allow engineers to direct, organise, and manage a commissioning team, putting commissioning procedures in place and delivering them for both new and old facilities.
  • CEM
    Also known as: Certified Energy Manager
    
    Developed by Association of Energy Engineers.
    
    Designed as a certification for energy sector professionals that optimise the energy performance of facilities, buildings, or industrial plants by using strategies and sustainable operating practices. 
    
    The certification demonstrates that an engineer is capable and competent to examine the optimal options for reducing energy consumption via the use of cost-effective ways.
  • Centrifugal Fan
    A type of fan that uses an impeller to draw air into its center, then pushes it out radially. Used to create a high flow rate with low pressure.
  • Centrifugal Pump
    The most common type of pump in a mechanical system. Liquid flows through the pump due to a centrifugal force that is created by the backward curved impeller.
    
    Converts Kinetic Energy to Pressure Energy.
  • Certificate of Compliance
    A written statement, signed by a qualified person, attesting that the goods or services comply with the stated standards, followed by further evidence to support the assertion.
  • Certified Commissioning Professional
    Also known as: CCP
    
    Developed by The Building Commissioning Certification Board
    
    In order to improve professional standards and offer a means of certification in the building commissioning sector, the CCP designation was developed to allow engineers to direct, organise, and manage a commissioning team, putting commissioning procedures in place and delivering them for both new and old facilities.
  • Certified Energy Manager
    Also known as: CEM
    
    Developed by Association of Energy Engineers.
    
    Designed as a certification for energy sector professionals that optimise the energy performance of facilities, buildings, or industrial plants by using strategies and sustainable operating practices. 
    
    The certification demonstrates that an engineer is capable and competent to examine the optimal options for reducing energy consumption via the use of cost-effective ways.
  • Certified Firm
    A company that meets and maintains all standards and requirements relating to a particular field or specialism.
    
    For example: Fire, ASHRAE, NEBB etc.
  • CFR
    Also known as: 'Current Facility Requirements'
    
    A report/document of the owner's current operational demands and specifications for a building or specific interior area. It often contains components that handle running hours, filtration, vibration, sound, and/or specific demands, as well as temperature and humidity set points.
  • Checklists
    Checklists are created by the commissioning authority/commissioning manager and main/general contractor where they are used throughout the commissioning process to evaluate certain tasks and activities that have been completed.
    
    They will cover a range of items such as general evaluation, design checks, tasks, activities, equipment checks, system checks, testing, training and any final documentation reviews.
  • Chiller
    A device, usually within a plant room, that removes heat from a fluid, such as water, to produce chilled water for air conditioning or other cooling purposes.
  • Cold Standby
    When all equipment needed to perform inline with the design requirements is running and the ‘spare/standby’ equipment is OFF.
    
    Upon failure of the equipment, the spare/standby will automatically start up from ‘cold’ covering the load of the failed equipment.
  • Commissionability Review
    Also known as: Commissioning Review, Commissioning Design Review
    
    Conducted at various stages of the design/commissioning process by the client appointed commissioning provider / authority, it is an analysis of the design documents to understand that they comply with the owners project requirement document [OPR].
    
    Other elements that will be reviewed are how the project can be commissioned and operated in the future once handed over to the operations team.
    
  • Commissioning
    When carried out properly and with the right expertise, "Commissioning" guarantees that the systems inside a building have been verified, recorded, tracked, and clearly documented that they have been installed, setup, tested, and are operating in accordance with the Owners Project Requirement and Basis of Design documents, with the facility teams being fully trained and are capable of operating and maintaining them.
  • Commissioning Activities
    Specific actions are to be done to ensure the overall commissioning and testing works are completed and documented satisfactorily for the whole project.
  • Commissioning Agent
    Also known as: CxA, CxP, Commissioning Provider, Commissioning Authority. 
    
    A specialist and experienced commissioning company, employed by a client/owner to oversee, validate and document that the project and its contractors complete the required tasks and activities related to the commissioning process inline with expectations.
    
  • Commissioning Authority
    Also known as CxA, or Commissioning Provider [CxP]
    
    A company/consultant who is appointed by the client to lead, oversee and coordinate the commissioning process and activities on a construction project.
    
    Will be supported by other team members such as designers, contractors and vendors.
  • Commissioning Design Review
    Also known as: Commissionability Review, Commissioning Review
    
    Conducted at various stages of the design/commissioning process by teh client appointed commissioning provider / authority, it is an analysis of the design documents to understand that they comply with the owners project requirement document [OPR].
    
    Other elements that will be reviewed are how the project can be commissioned and future operated once handed over to the operations team.
    
  • Commissioning Levels
    Commissioning stages, usually relating to Data Centers ranging from 0 to 7.
    
    •	Level 0 - Design & planning
    •	Level 1 - Factory testing
    •	Level 2 - Component & system delivery / pre-installation
    •	Level 3 - Pre-commissioning / pre-functional & startup
    •	Level 4 - Component / system functional performance testing
    •	Level 5 - System integrated testing
    •	Level 6 - Closeout & turnover
    •	Level 7 - Acceptance & final reports
  • Commissioning Management
    Overseeing the planning, organizing, coordination, and control of a projects commissioning activities.
    
    Usually completed inline with ASHRAE, ACG, BCxA, BSRIA, or NEBB requirements.
  • Commissioning Plan
    A document that is written in the very early stages of a project and then updated throughout until final handover covering the commissioning process to be deployed, organizational structure, schedules, responsibilities, documentation, and overall expectations to fully deliver the commissioning activities. 
  • Commissioning Process
    A 5 stage process that is completed during a construction/commissioning project to validate and document that all systems and equipment are designed, installed, tested, operate, and can be maintained in line with the project requirements.
  • Commissioning Provider
    Also known as: CxA, CxP, Commissioning Agent, Commissioning Authority. 
    
    A specialist and experienced commissioning company, employed by a client/owner to oversee, validate and document that the project and its contractors complete the required tasks and activities related to the commissioning process inline with expectations.
  • Commissioning Report
    A Commissioning Report, if developed and written correctly, will provide a historical account of the commissioning procedure, process and works. 
    
    It is helpful as a final verification document, and a great if looking to recommission or sell a facility.
  • Commissioning Review
    Also known as: Commissionability Review, Commissioning Design Review
    
    Conducted at various stages of the design/commissioning process by teh client appointed commissioning provider / authority, it is an analysis of the design documents to understand that they comply with the owners project requirement document [OPR].
    
    Other elements that will be reviewed are how the project can be commissioned and future operated once handed over to the operations team.
    
  • Commissioning Team
    A selection of professionals from across a construction project, with specific interactions with the commissioning process, tasks and activities.
    
    Covering, client representative, commissioning manager, design managers, facilities department, main contractor, general contractor, subcontractors, testing adjusting, and balancing engineers and vendors.
  • Competent Person
    A person who has the applicable experience, knowledge, and training in the works and activities that are needing to be carried out to ensure they are completed correctly and safely.
  • Computer Room Air Conditioning Unit
    Also known as: CRAC Unit.
    
    Usually found within data hall/IT rooms, using internal fans, a refrigerant cycle, and a cooling coil to remove heat from a space being conditioned, creating the cooling process.
  • Computer Room Air Handling Unit
    Also known as: CRAH Unit
    
    Usually found within data hall/IT rooms, using internal fans, chilled water, and a cooling coil to remove heat from a space being conditioned, creating the cooling process.
  • Conductivity
    A simple and effective measurement of the ability for water to pass an electrical current based upon the conductive ions within the water.
    
    It shows the quantity of dissolved solids are present, a high conductivity measurement = higher amount.
  • Construction Checklist
    A pre-formatted form that is used by the construction team to aid in the verification of checking a particular system or piece of equipment prior to moving to the functional testing stage. Examples would be, delivery checklist, installation checklist, pre-functional checklists. 
  • Construction Documents
    Documentation that will be used to allow the construction of a project covering tendering, contracts, specifications, drawings, codes, guides, standards, material submissions, calculations, approvals, certification etc. 
  • Construction Phase
    Following the 'design stage'. All tasks, activities and processes that are carried out during the building phase of a project, before the occupancy & operations stage of works.
  • Construction Team
    A team of project personnel with different skills needed to complete a construction project. 
    
    Covering multiple disciplines - client representatives, architects, structural engineers, building services engineers, environmental engineers, commissioning managers, general contractors, main contractors, subcontractors, vendors etc.
  • Continuous Commissioning
    Continuing the commissioning process from occupancy and operations through the building/facility life to ensure it runs and operates at maximum efficiency.
  • Contract Document Evaluation
    Evaluation of the contract plans, drawings and specifications by a company.
  • Contract Documents
    Legal documents that outline the terms and conditions of a project, including the contract, drawings, and specifications.
  • Control Loop Tuning
    The capacity to alter the reaction time of a PID-controlled point in accordance with the operation sequence requirements.
  • Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
    Also known as: COSHH
    
    It is a United Kingdom Regulation [2002] that provides a framework to help protect people in the workplace against health risks from hazardous substances. The substances may be used directly in the workplace (eg cleaning chemicals) or may arise from the work (e.g. dusts, fumes and waste products).
  • Control Panel
    A device that houses electrical controls and instruments for monitoring and regulating a building's systems and equipment.
    
  • Corrective Action
    Equipment or system repair, replacement, re-building, calibration, or adjustment.
  • Corrosion Coupons

    Made of similar metals and materials to the system components and pipework; scaling and or corrosion coupons are installed within a hydraulic system [chilled water/condenser water] to allow the examination of the overall ‘corrosion rate’, allowing the system’s current condition to be understood and the ability also to predict its future life expectancy allowing for preventative maintenance measures.

  • COSHH
    COSHH is an acronym for 'Control of Substances Hazardous to Health'.
    
    It is a United Kingdom Regulation [2002] that provides a framework to help protect people in the workplace against health risks from hazardous substances. The substances may be used directly in the workplace (eg cleaning chemicals) or may arise from the work (e.g. dusts, fumes and waste products).
  • CRAC Unit
    Also known as: Computer Room Air Conditioning Unit.
    
    Usually found within data hall/IT rooms, using internal fans, a refrigerant cycle, and a cooling coil to remove heat from a space being conditioned, creating the cooling process.
  • CRAH Unit
    Also known as: Computer Room Air Handling Unit. 
    
    Usually found within data hall/IT rooms, using internal fans, chilled water, and a cooling coil to remove heat from a space being conditioned, creating the cooling process.
  • Current Facility Requirements
    Also known as: 'CFR'
    
    A report/document of the owner's current operational demands and specifications for a building or specific interior area. It often contains components that handle running hours, filtration, vibration, sound, and/or specific demands, as well as temperature and humidity set points.
  • Cx
    Cx is a common acroynm used when talking about 'commissioning'.
  • Cx Levels
    Commissioning stages, usually relating to Data Centers ranging from 0 to 7.
    
    •	Level 0 - Design & planning
    •	Level 1 - Factory testing
    •	Level 2 - Component & system delivery / pre-installation
    •	Level 3 - Pre-commissioning / pre-functional & startup
    •	Level 4 - Component / system functional performance testing
    •	Level 5 - System integrated testing
    •	Level 6 - Closeout & turnover
    •	Level 7 - Acceptance & final reports
  • CxA
    Also known as: Commissioning Provider, CxP, Commissioning Agent, Commissioning Authority. 
    
    A specialist and experienced commissioning company, employed by a client/owner to oversee, validate and document that the project and its contractors complete the required tasks and activities related to the commissioning process inline with expectations.
  • CxP
    Also known as: Commissioning Provider, CxA, Commissioning Agent, Commissioning Authority. 
    
    A specialist and experienced commissioning company, employed by a client/owner to oversee, validate and document that the project and its contractors complete the required tasks and activities related to the commissioning process inline with expectations.
  • Daily Report
    A report issued daily, providing a high level overview of the tasks and activities that have been completed during that working period.
    
    Used in the latter stages of a project.
  • Dashboard
    Also known as: 'User Interfaces'
    
    'Real-time' systems that measure and show a buildings performance such as general building comfort, energy consumption, and operational and maintenance factors.
  • Data Center
    A building that contains multiple types of rooms and spaces to power, cool and manage the data halls.
  • Data Hall
    A large secure room or dedicated space within a data center where the IT equipment, racks, servers and electronic storage systems are installed.
  • Data Logger
    A portable calibrated digital device that is used to commonly capture and log temperature and humidity at set intervals.
  • DB
    Also known as: 'Power Distribution Board', 'Distribution Board'
    
    An electrical device that conntects to a larger single electrical source and then distributes the electrical power to various circuits within the system, usually 'small power'.
  • DCV
    Also known as: 'Demand Controlled Ventilation'
    
    A ventilation system that adjusts the airflow rate based on the occupancy and/or air quality of a space.
  • DDC
    Also known as: Direct Digital Control
    
    DDC [Direct Digital Control] employs a microprocessor to regulate, monitor, and manage system settings and environmental conditions, issuing correction commands in response to changing conditions.
  • Deferred Maintenance
    Maintenance works that are delayed due to expense, lack of labour, materials or the works are not urgent.
  • Deferred Testing
    Tests that cannot be completed at the conclusion of the Commissioning Phase owing to environmental conditions, timetable conflicts, or other factors.
  • Deficiency
    Any installation, measurement, or discovery that exceeds the tolerances permitted by the standards or project requirements.
  • Deficiency Log
    Also known as: 'Issues Resolution Log or 'IRL'
    
    Usually provided in MS Excel - this is a log, schedule or register that is used to document and manage observations, snags or project issues.
  • Demand Controlled Ventilation
    Also known as: 'DCV
    
    A ventilation system that adjusts the airflow rate based on the occupancy and/or air quality of a space.
  • Design & Build
    One of several ways to deliver a project, where most contracts employ a designer independent of the general/main contractor to construct a project.
    
    A design & build contract employs the general/main contractor to complete the DESIGN and CONSTRUCTION elements.
  • Design Clarification
    When there is some confusion or something is not clear within a design, a clarification will be sought, usually in the way of a request for information [RFI] by the reviewer for the designer to answer.
  • Design Criteria
    A list of the design requirements for the project, including the source of the design criteria. These are utilized throughout the assessment of the design phase to demonstrate compliance with the OPR.
  • Design Intent
    Design intent is the description of how a designer wants their desing to look, operate and work.
  • Design Phase
    All commissioning tasks performed during the Design phase of a project.
  • Design Professional
    The official designer, architect, or engineer for the project.
  • Design Review
    Depending upon the project, a client will employ a third party / peer reviewer to identify any issues and ensure the proposed design meets the owners project requirement document and basis of design prior to issuing out as a tender package.
  • Diagnostic Monitoring
    Analysing the performance of a building's equipment and systems using energy management control system [EMCS] trending, portable data logger trending, and energy and meteorological data.
  • Direct Digital Control
    Also known as: DDC
    
    Direct digital control [DDC] employs a microprocessor to regulate, monitor, and manage system settings and environmental conditions, issuing correction commands in response to changing conditions.
  • Discovery Phase
    The part of a project that consists of the study of drawings and specifications, evaluation of documents, and site research.
  • Distribution Board
    Also known as: 'DB, 'Power Distribution Board'
    
    An electrical device that conntects to a larger single electrical source and then distributes the electrical power to various circuits within the system, usually 'small power'.
  • Drawings
    Paper or electronic files that shaw a visual representations of a building's system design and layout, including architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, fire and plumbing.
  • Ductwork
    A network of ducts within a ventilation system that transports the air throughout a building.
  • EBCx
    Also known as: 'Existing Building Commissioning'
    
    A systematic procedure for evaluating, assessing, and optimizing the performance of building systems by identifying and implementing low/no cost and capital demanding Facility Improvement Measures.
  • EE
    EE is the acronym for Electrical Engineering and can be used when talking about this type of system on a project.
  • Electrical Drawings
    Drawings that detail the electrical systems and equipment of a building, including wiring diagrams, panel schedules, and load calculations.
  • ELV
    ELV is the acronym for Extra Low Voltage and can be used when talking about this type of system on a project.
  • EMS
    Also known as: 'Energy Management System'
    
    A system that digitally monitors and controls a building's energy use, including heating, cooling, lighting, and other systems.
  • End User
    The person or persons who are the final users of the facilities after a project has been completed.
  • Energy Audit
    A systematic evaluation of a building's energy use and performance, with the goal of identifying opportunities to improve efficiency and reduce energy consumption.
  • Energy Management System
    Also known as: 'EMS'
    
    A system that digitally monitors and controls a building's energy use, including heating, cooling, lighting, and other systems.
  • Energy Performance Contract
    Also known as: 'EPC'
    
    A contract in which an Energy Services Company [ESCO] agrees to investigate, plan and then implement energy efficiency measures in a building or facility, and the owner agrees to pay for the improvements based on the resulting energy savings.
  • Energy Services Company
    Also known as: 'ESCO'
    
    An Energy Services Company is a type of company that that specializes in improving the energy efficiency of buildings and facilities.
    
    They offer a range of services usually including energy audits, energy modeling, design and engineering, construction and installation, and commissioning and verification.
  • Enhanced Commissioning
    Enhanced Commissioning takes the fundamental process and ‘enhancing it’ under the LEED U.S Green Building Council Pre-Requisite V4 BD+C New Construction, with its aim being to ensure that any systems related to energy, water, indoor environmental quality, and durability, upon handover, have been fully documented proving that they are designed, installed, set up, and operating as per their original design intent.
    
    Enhancements to the fundamental process would be:
    - Verification of operator/occupant training and delivery.
    - Plan and manage seasonal testing.
    - Develop an ongoing commissioning plan.
    - Complete a 10 month review.
    - Develop a monitoring based commissioning process.
    - Envelope commissioning.
  • Enthalpy
    Measured in Joules, Enthalpy can be described as the total internal energy content of a fluid/system.
  • Environmental Systems
    Systems that use a mix of mechanical equipment, airflow, waterflow, and electrical energy to provide heating, ventilation, air conditioning, humidification, and dehumidification for human comfort or process temperature and humidity management.
  • EPC
    Also known as: 'Energy Performance Contract'
    
    A contract in which an Energy Services Company [ESCO] agrees to investigate, plan and then implement energy efficiency measures in a building or facility, and the owner agrees to pay for the improvements based on the resulting energy savings.
  • Equipment Settings
    There are two types of equipment settings we find when commissioning:
    
    - Manufacturer standard settings
    - Client/Facilities specified settings
    
    Manufacturer settings
    are defined as the settings that are inputted into the equipment/system, that are standard from the manufacturer with no modifications.
    
    Client/Facility specified settings
    are described as those that will be provided by the client/facility team and inputted into the equipment/systems.
    
    This can be seen where a client has a large portfolio and needs to ensure that all equipment across their different facilities are set the same, allowing same operation and responses.
    
    Mainly in Data Centers.
  • ERU
    Acronym for ‘Energy Recovery Unit’.
    
    An energy recovery unit is part of a ventilation system that takes the warm/cool treated air extracted from a space and passes it over a heat exchanger where the temperature difference with the supply air passing in the opposite direction on the other side of the exchanger picking up the energy, warming or cooling this air before being treated.
  • ESCO
    Also known as: 'Energy Services Company'
    
    An ESCO is a type of company that that specializes in improving the energy efficiency of buildings and facilities.
    
    They offer a range of services usually including energy audits, energy modeling, design and engineering, construction and installation, and commissioning and verification.
  • Executive Summary
    Usually placed at the start of a report or document, it is written to provide a high level summary of the whole document to the readers.
  • Exhaust Fan
    Also known as: 'Extract Fan'
    
    A fan that is designed and installed to remove air from a space, typically used in bathrooms, kitchens, and other areas with high moisture levels or odors.
  • Existing Building Commissioning
    Also known as: 'EBCx'
    
    A systematic procedure for evaluating, assessing, and optimizing the performance of building systems by identifying and implementing low/no cost and capital demanding Facility Improvement Measures.
  • Extract Fan
    Also known as: 'Exhaust Fan'
    
    A fan that is designed and installed to remove air from a space, typically used in bathrooms, kitchens, and other areas with high moisture levels or odors.
  • Facilities Department
    Also known as: Building operator
    
    The team of engineers and operatives who will run and maintain the building and its systems during its life, after handover by the project team.
  • Factory Acceptance Testing
    Factory Acceptance Testing or an FAT is conducted to ensure that a list of pre determined equipment, prior to leaving the factory can meet the project design requirements under rigorous testing conditions, then after a successful test a fully documented report will be issued.
    
    Testing is completed during the pre construction stage of a project.
  • FAT
    FAT or Factory Acceptance Testing is conducted to ensure that a list of pre determined equipment, prior to leaving the factory can meet the project design requirements under rigorous testing conditions, then after a successful test a fully documented report will be issued.
    
    Testing is completed during the pre construction stage of a project.
  • Fault Detection System
    Also known as: FDD System
    
    A Fault Detection System is an electronic automated software that is designed, programmed, integrated and installed into a building, helping to monitor and manage its performance, energy usage, operation and maintenance; by monitoring its services, systems, components and instruments for any issues or anomalies.
    
    Reports are able to be generated for analysis by the users and alarms can be sent to operatives if issues are noted.
    
    Mechanical, Electrical, Fire, Lifts, Escalators, Plumbing Systems are usually incorporated into the overall system.
  • FDD System
    Also known as: Fault Detection System
    
    A FDD System is an electronic automated software that is designed, programmed, integrated and installed into a building, helping to monitor and manage its performance, energy usage, operation and maintenance; by monitoring its services, systems, components and instruments for any issues or anomalies.
    
    Reports are able to be generated for analysis by the users and alarms can be sent to operatives if issues are noted.
    
    Mechanical, Electrical, Fire, Lifts, Escalators, Plumbing Systems are usually incorporated into the overall system.
  • Fenestration
    Any gap or opening in the construction of a building, including windows, skylights, window walls, doors, louvers, and access panels.
  • FFO
    Also known as: 'Full & Final Offer'
    
    Once the tendering process has been completed, including interviews, the clients procurement will usually ask for a. Full & Final Offer’ from the tenderers.
    
    The tenderers will usually provide their lowest price that are happy to do the project for.
    
  • Fire Alarm Panel
    A device that receives and manages the signals and alarms from a connected fire detection and suppression system.
  • Fire Protection Drawings
    Drawings that detail the fire detection and suppression systems of a building, including suppression layouts, smoke detector locations and wiring details.
  • Fire Sprinkler System
    A system that is used to fight fires within a building by using tanks, pumps, pipes and 'sprinkler heads'. It is designed to automatically extinguish fires by releasing water upon activation of one or more 'sprinkler heads'
  • Flow Hood
    Used mainly to measure the airflow rate at the outlets and inlets of a ventilation system to verify that a system is delivering the desired amount of air to a space.
    
    They are a portable device that uses a hood, placed over the inlet or outlet and a vane sensor to measure the airflow rate.
  • FOD
    Also known as: Foreign Object Detection.
    
    This is an inspection completed after cleaning and prior to energisation of an electrical switchboard to ensure it is clean and dust free.      
  • Forced Ventilation
    A ventilation system that uses fans to force air into or out of a building.
  • Foreign Object Detection
    Also known as: FOD
    
    This is an inspection completed after cleaning and prior to energisation of an electrical switchboard to ensure it is clean and dust free.      
  • FPT
    Also known as: Functional Performance Test
    
    Completed after the pre-startup checks. It is a type of testing conducted on equipment and systems verifying they meet and operate inline with the pre-approved functional testing scripts and the project/design requirements.
  • FS
    FS is the acronym for Fire Systems and can be used when talking about this type of system on a project.
  • Full & Final Offer
    Also known as: FFO
    
    Once the tendering process has been completed, including interviews, the clients procurement will usually ask for a Full & Final Offer’ from the tenderers.
    
    The tenderers will usually provide their lowest price that are happy to do the project for.
    
  • Functional Performance Test
    Also known as: FPT
    
    Completed after the pre-startup checks. It is a type of testing conducted on equipment and systems verifying they meet and operate inline with the pre-approved functional testing scripts and the project/design requirements.
  • Functional Testing
    Completed after the pre-startup checks. It is a type of testing conducted on equipment and systems verifying they meet and operate inline with the pre-approved functional testing scripts and the project/design requirements.
  • Functionality
    A design element or construction method that enables a system or component to function or be produced in accordance with the OPR's/users desired outcome.
  • Fundamental Commissioning
    LEED Fundamental Commissioning is a process completed under the U.S Green Building Council Pre-Requisite 1 EA Module, with its aim being that all fundamental systems relating to energy, water, indoor environmental quality, and durability, upon handover, have been fully documented proving that they are designed, installed, set up, and operating as per their original design intent.
  • FWT
    FWT is short for 'Factory Witness Test' and similar to the FAT 'Factory Acceptance Test'.
    
    The test is conducted within a controlled factory environment to validate the performance of equipment prior to dispatch to the site.
  • General Contractor
    Also known as: Main Contractor or Prime Contractor
    
    The General Contractor will be responsible for the overall communication, management, programming, purchasing, employing contractors/vendors, planning, installation, inspections, commissioning and handing over of a construction project.
    
    They will be supported by the overall project team including, consultants, vendors, suppliers and contractors.
  • Generator
    A device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy, used as a backup power source or for supplying power to buildings if the utilities supplies are interuppted.
  • Glycol
    Glycol is used in closed chilled water systems as a type of antifreeze in some countries, due to winter ambient temperatures causing risk of freezing.
    
    Not protecting the system sufficiently could cause blockages, leaks, damage to equipment and issues with efficiency.
  • Graphic Verification Tests
    Tests designed to demonstrate that the graphic diagrams on the head end and/or DDC screen are true and accurately depict the field configuration and operation of a system or component.
  • Gravity Ventilation
    A ventilation system that relies on natural convection and the difference in density between warm and cool air to drive airflow through the building.
  • Grey Water
    Untreated wastewater from bath tubs, showers, washing machines etc, that has not come into touch with waste from a toilet, kitchen sink, dishwasher, or other similarly polluted sources. 
  • Grounding
    The practice of connecting electrical systems, equipmetn and the building to the earth, reducing the risk of electrical shock and to protect against electrical surges and lightning.
  • Handover
    The process of moving the responsibility of a completed building or facility from the General/Main Contractor to the owner or operator.
  • Harmonics
    A sinusoidal component whose frequency is a multiple of the fundamental frequency by a whole number.
  • Heat Exchanger
    A device that transfers heat from one fluid/air/gas to another, keeping htem separate and not allowing them to mix.
  • Heat Load Testing
    Heat load testing, conducted during Level 5 above, is used to validate the performance and reaction of the cooling infrastructure within a critical space/data hall by using temporary load banks to replicate the expected server loadings during normal operation.
    
    The system will be tested through different loadings [25%, 50%, 75% & 100%] and various failure scenarios.
    
    Once completed successfully the CxA [commissioning provider/agent] will provide a detailed report confirming if the results are in line with the design and expectations.
  • Heat Recovery Ventilation
    Also known as: 'HRV'
    
    A ventilation system that captures and reuses the heat from exhausted air to preheat incoming fresh air, by plate or thermal wheel, improving energy efficiency.
  • Hot Standby
    When all equipment including the ‘spare/standby’ is running, then upon failure of any unit the remaining running equipment will absorb the increase in load increasing its capability to perform inline with the design.
  • HRV
    Also known as: 'Heat Recovery Ventilation'
    
    A ventilation system that captures and reuses the heat from exhausted air to preheat incoming fresh air, by plate or thermal wheel, improving energy efficiency.
  • Hunting
    Hunting is the phenomena where the control valve or fan can oscillate [up and down, up and down] on a cooling / heating unit affecting system stability, control and temperatures.

  • HVAC
    HVAC is the acronym for 'Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning' and can be used when talking about the systems and equipment that are designed, installed and commissioned in a facility to provide the correct comfort levels to its spaces and occupants/users.
  • HVAC Drawings
    Drawings that detail the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems of a building, including equipment locations, pipework and ducting routings, settings, commisisoning information and logics.
  • IAQ
    Also known as: 'Indoor Air Quality', 'IEQ'
    
    The air quality within a building, including factors such as temperature, humidity, ventilation, and contaminants that the users and occupants are exposed to.
  • IEQ
    Also known as: Indoor Environmental Air Quality
    
    The relative quality of the interior air environment, which typically consists of temperature, humidity, CO2 levels, and particulate matter such as dust, ozone, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and other trace components. 
    
    IEQ may also refer to biological contaminants, such as mold or Legionella bacteria, as well as the acoustic and visual quality of a place.
  • Implementation Phase
    Works are implemented on site [installation] for the different HVAC, electrical, and building envelope components, including control sequences and test, adjust, and balance works.
  • Indoor Air Quality
    Also known as: 'IQA', 'IEQ'
    
    The air quality within a building, including factors such as temperature, humidity, ventilation, and contaminants that the users and occupants are exposed to.
  • Indoor Environmental Quality
    Also known as: IEQ
    
    The relative quality of the interior air environment, which typically consists of temperature, humidity, CO2 levels, and particulate matter such as dust, ozone, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and other trace components. 
    
    Indoor Environment Quality may also refer to biological contaminants, such as mold or Legionella bacteria, as well as the acoustic and visual quality of a place.
  • Industry-Accepted Best Practice
    A design component or construction method that has attained industry-wide consensus for superior performance and usefulness.
  • Infrared Imaging System
    A device that translates spatial differences in infrared light from a surface into a two-dimensional picture of that surface, with variations in brightness shown as a spectrum of colors or tones.
  • Infrared Thermography
    The generation of thermal pictures representing temperature and emittance fluctuations over the surfaces of objects.
  • Inline Fan
    A fan that is installed directly within the ductwork of a ventilation system to allow the air to pass through it. Allows a compact and efficient design.
  • Installation Verification
    Observations or inspections, confirming that the system or component has been installed in line with the contract agreements and industry standards.
  • Insulation
    Materials used to reduce heat loss or heat gain in a building, its works by limiting the flow of heat through the walls, floors, ceilings, and other surfaces/components.
  • Integrated Systems Testing
    Also known as: IST.
    
    Testing that is conducted on a complete mechanical, electrical, plumbing and or fire system to ensure that it, its equipment, controls, components and sub components operate as per the design requirements under differing conditions including failures.
    
    An example would be, the integrated testing of a ventilation system where the AHU needs to be integrated with the ductwork, fire dampers, motorized dampers, motorized control systems, general control systems, BMS, fire systems, humidifier, water, condensate, power, chilled water, heating water systems, etc.
  • IRL
    Also known as: 'Issues Resolution Log'
    
    Usually provided in MS Excel this is a log, schedule or register that is used to document and manage observations, snags or project issues.
  • Issues Resolution Log
    Also known as: 'IRL'
    
    Usually provided in MS Excel this is a log, schedule or register that is used to document and manage observations, snags or project issues.
  • IST
    Acronym for 'Integrated Systems Testing'.
    
    Testing that is conducted on a complete mechanical, electrical, plumbing and or fire system to ensure that it, its equipment, controls, components and sub components operate as per the design requirements under differing conditions including failures.
    
  • Jet Fan
    A type of fan that uses a high-velocity jet of air to move it in a horizontal direction to a specific place. Usually seen in tunnels or large open areas where the conditioned air is aimed at the occupants.
  • Kitchen Exhaust Fan
    A type of exhaust fan specifically designed for use in kitchen environments, typically installed above the stove or range.
  • LEED
    LEED means for 'Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design'
  • LEED Accredited Professional
    Also known as: LEED AP
    
    LEED Accredited Professional provides qualification and accreditation to professional engineers proving that a particular individual has a deep and complete understanding of the green buildings principles and practices. 
    
    There are various types of LEED AP qualifications that can be gained:
    
    - LEED AP Building Design + Construction [BD+C]
    - LEED AP Operations + Maintenance [O+M]
    - LEED AP Interior Design and Construction [ID+C]
    - LEED AP Neighborhood Development [ND]
    - LEED AP Homes [HOMES]
  • LEED AP
    Also known as: LEED Accredited Professional
    
    LEED AP provides qualification and accreditation to professional engineers proving that a particular individual has a deep and complete understanding of the green buildings principles and practices. 
    
    There are various types of LEED AP qualifications that can be gained:
    
    - LEED AP Building Design + Construction [BD+C]
    - LEED AP Operations + Maintenance [O+M]
    - LEED AP Interior Design and Construction [ID+C]
    - LEED AP Neighborhood Development [ND]
    - LEED AP Homes [HOMES]
    
  • Level 0 - Design & Planning
    Level 0 is the first stage of the data center / critical system commissioning process covering the design and planning stage of the project.
    
    This stage will cover:
    
    - Design reviews to ensure that any systems and equipment are able to be functionally tested and commissioned,
    
    - Complete a single point of failure review to ensure that upon any issue or failure on a system with redundancy, there are no points where the whole system will fail,
    
    - The commissioning process is agreed upon, specified, and stipulated within the contract documents,
    
    - The commissioning process is set up and ready prior to the following Levels being started.
    
    This is then followed by Levels 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7
  • Level 1 - Factory Testing
    Level 1 is the second stage of the data center / critical system commissioning process covering the factory testing stage of the project, to ensure that any specific equipment is tested and undergoes the correct quality assurance process prior to being dispatched from the factory.
    
    This stage will cover:
    
    - Providing documentation, that will be reviewed, such as testing procedures and QA/QC checklists,
    
    - Agreeing on which equipment will be tested,
    
    - Factory testing & QA/QC Checks,
    
    - Reports and data gathering,
    
    - Attachment of the correct tag [Red]
    
    This is then followed by Levels 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7
  • Level 2 - Component Delivery
    Level 2 is the third stage of the data center / critical system commissioning process covering the delivery and inspection prior to acceptance from the factory of the equipment and components being installed within the project.
    
    This is to ensure that, before being accepted, unloaded, and put into storage / installed it meets the project requirements.
    
    This stage will cover:
    
    - Ensuring all delivery checklists are approved and in place prior to delivery,
    
    - Planning and management of the delivery schedule,
    
    - Documenting the receiving of equipment and materials onto site,
    
    - Documenting the onsite pre-installation requirements,
    
    - Provide a Yellow Tag upon completion.
    
    This is then followed by Levels 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7
  • Level 3 - Pre-Functional Testing and Start-Up
    Level 3 is the fourth stage of the data center / critical system commissioning process covering the pre-functional testing and start-up of the individual systems and equipment within the project.
    
    This is to ensure that, before moving to the next level all equipment and systems are energized, set up, and checked for their operation prior to being integrated with other equipment and systems, meeting the project requirements.
    
    This stage will cover:
    
    - Validation that the installations, equipment, and systems meet the design, drawings, and general project construction requirements,
    
    - Pre-commissioning/Pre-functional inspections,
    
    - Energization & Startup of equipment,
    
    - Complete any works needed to move to Level 4 [Pressure Testing, Cable Testing, Flushing, General Testing etc]
    
    - Documenting of all Level 3 tasks and activities,
    
    - Ensure all issues and observations are closed out relating to Level 3, Level 2 & Level 1 tasks and activities
    
    - Ready systems for Level 4 Functional Testing,
    
    - Provide a Green Tag upon completion.
    
    This is then followed by Levels 4, 5, 6 & 7
  • Level 4 - Functional Testing
    Level 4 is the fifth stage of the data center / critical system commissioning process covering the functional testing of systems and equipment within the project.
    
    It would usually be led by the client CxA [commissioning provider/authority]
    
    This level is completed to ensure that, all systems are integrated and operating as 'one' in line with the design requirements, prior to moving to the final Level 5 works.
    
    This stage will cover:
    
    - Issuing Functional Testing Scripts
    
    - Meetings, Workshops, and Reporting
    
    - Load Bank Plans and Temporary Instruments/Equipment
    
    - Functional Testing
    
    - Document Filing
    
    - Final Level 4 Report and Closeout Meeting
    
    This is then followed by Levels 5, 6 & 7
  • Level 5 - Integrated Testing
    Level 5 is the sixth stage of the data center / critical system commissioning process covering the electrical integrated testing [IST] and mechanical heat load testing [HLT].
    
    It would usually be led by the client CxA [commissioning provider/authority]
    
    This level is completed to ensure that, once all systems are integrated they operate and can maintain the environmental conditions of the critical spaces under test, during normal operation, and upon any failure scenarios.
    
    This stage will cover:
    
    - Issuing Integrated Testing Scripts,
    
    - Meetings, Workshops, and Reporting,
    
    - Organization of Permits,
    
    - Load Bank Plans and Temporary Instruments/Equipment,
    
    - Resource Schedules,
    
    - Integrated Systems Testing,
    
    - Document Filing,
    
    - Final Level 5 Integrated Testing Report and Closeout Meeting.
    
    This is then followed by levels 6 & 7
  • Level 6 - Closeout & Turnover
    Level 6 is the seventh stage of the data center / critical system commissioning process covering the closeout & turnover of the project.
    
    It would usually be led by the client CxA [commissioning provider/authority]
    
    This level is completed to ensure that the client and end-user agree that the project documentation has been completed and that there are no outstanding works.
    
    This stage will cover:
    
    - Ensuring all L5 reports have been approved,
    
    - Closing out and resolving all defects and punch lists,
    
    - Issuing of final operating and maintenance manuals,
    
    - Issuing of building log books/systems manual,
    
    - Complete lessons learned workshop, document, and create/issue schedule to the client team,
    
    - Finalize owners project requirement document [OPR] and basis of design document [BOD],
    
    - Complete final settings verification on all critical equipment,
    
    - Complete training of building operator/facility engineers,
    
    - Complete and issue final commissioning report,
    
    - Complete and issue closeout/turnover report,
    
    - Client acceptance that the systems and data center have been proved to be operating as per the project requirements and design.
    
    This is then followed by Level 7
  • Level 7 - Acceptance
    Level 7 is the eighth stage of the data center / critical system commissioning process covering the overall acceptance of the project, documentation, and commissioning results by the client and end-user.
    
    It would usually be led by the client CxA [commissioning provider/authority]
    
    This level is completed to ensure that the client and end-user agree the project has been completed in line with the design and operational expectations with no observations outstanding.
    
    This stage will cover:
    
    - Conduct a Level 7 closeout meeting with the client and end user,
    
    - Agree that all processes and activities have been completed from Levels 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 & 6,
    
    - Agree that all issues and observations have been completed,
    
    - Review of electronic platforms to ensure all commissioning documentation has been uploaded and approved.
    
    - Provide approved final operating and maintenance manuals,
    
    - Provide training records,
    
    - Provide/inspect final cleanliness records of critical spaces,
    
    - Provide final commissioning report,
    
    - Issue and acceptance of Level 7 completion certificate.
    
    This will be the end of the data hall commissioning process.
  • Lighting Control Panel
    A device that monitors and controls the lighting systems within a building, including dimming, switching, and energy management.
  • Louvred Vent
    A ventilation opening with fixed/maneuverable slats or flaps that can be opened or closed to control airflow manually or auromatically.
  • LSS
    LSS is the acronym for Life Safety Systems and can be used when talking about this type of system on a project.
  • Main Contractor
    Also known as: General Contractor or Prime Contractor
    
    The Main Contractor will be responsible for the overall communication, management, programming, purchasing, employing contractors/vendors, planning, installation, inspections, commissioning and handing over of a construction project.
    
    They will be supported by the overall project team including, consultants, vendors, suppliers and contractors.
  • Maintainability
    A design element or construction requirement that allows for effective maintenance of equipment or components. 
    
    i.e Sufficient space for equipment maintenance, adjustment, removal and replacement.
  • Maintenance Management Work Order

    An order provided to a contractor, supplier, or vendor for building/system repairs or troubleshooting is derived from the building owner's maintenance management system or processes.

  • Master Metering
    One utility meter serving the entire building/facility/property.
  • MEP
    MEP is the acronym for Mechanical, Electrical & Plumbing and can be used when talking about these type of systems on a project.
  • MEP Designer
    Employed by the client or general/main contractor, the MEP Designer plans, designs, sizes and initially coordinates the mechanical, electrical, plumbing and drainage system requirements for a construction project.
    
    They will initially work from the Owners Project Requirement Document [OPR].
  • Mixed Flow Fan
    A type of fan that combines the features of axial and centrifugal fans on a central shaft, providing a balance of high flow rate and high pressure.
  • Monthly Report
    A report issued at he end of each month, providing a detailed update of the tasks and activities that have been completed for the project.
  • MVAC
    MVAC is the acronym for Mechanical, Ventilation and Air Conditioning and can be used when talking about this type of system on a project.
  • Natural Ventilation
    A ventilation system that relies on the natural forces of wind and temperature differences to drive airflow through a building, using no mechanical systems only windows, doors vents or other openings.
  • O&M Manual
    O&M Manuals are also known as 'Operating and Maintenance Manuals' which are issued, to the facilities/building operator at the handover stage of a construction project.
    
    They are to provide the facilities/building operator with up-to-date, as-built information relating to how the equipment and systems have been designed, installed, commissioned, and set to work to allow an efficient understanding of the building’s operation and maintenance requirements.
  • Occupants
    People who are legally allowed to be within a facility and benefit from its use.
  • Operating and Maintenance Manual
    Operation and Maintenance Manuals are also known as 'O&M Manuals' which are issued, to the facilities/building operator at the handover stage of a construction project.
    
    They are to provide the facilities/building operator with up-to-date, as-built information relating to how the equipment and systems have been designed, installed, commissioned, and set to work to allow an efficient understanding of the building’s operation and maintenance requirements.
  • OPR
    The objective of the OPR or [Owners Project Requirement] Document is to provide the basis from which all design, construction, acceptance, and operational decisions are made, it should be agreed and in place prior to the Basis of Design Document [BOD] being written, Commissioning Plan and other Commissioning / Project Documents.
  • Optimization
    Adjusting the operational parameters of a system to get the best degree of performance with the least amount of capital expenditure and energy useage.
  • Outdoor Air Intake
    A ventilation opening that allows fresh outdoor air to enter a buildings space or system.
  • Owners Project Requirements
    The objective of the Owners Project Requirement Document or [OPR] is to provide the basis from which all design, construction, acceptance, and operational decisions are made, it should be agreed and in place prior to the Basis of Design Document [BOD] being written, Commissioning Plan and other Commissioning / Project Documents.
  • Partial Possession
    Also known as: 'Benificial Occupation'
    
    When a client moves into or uses elements of a building prior to the official handover and completion of a project.
  • Payback
    The amount of time necessary to repay the capital invested, or to reach the point when expenditures and income are equal.
  • PE
    An acronym for ‘Professional Engineer’. 
    
    An engineer who has obtained a state board of registration licence to practise engineering, proving proficiency in their field.
  • Peer Review
    Usually employed by the client. An independent technical review of a particular element of a projects design, at various stages, by a qualified party, to ensure it meets the overall project needs and regulatory requirements. 
  • Performance Verification
    The process of evaluating the 'as built' performance of a building's systems and equipment against the initial specified performance criteria.
  • Persistence
    The unwavering commitment to a course of activity despite obstacles or opposition.
  • Pitot Tube
    A pitot tube is a device that measures the velocity of airflow by measuring the pressure difference across a small opening. They consist of a tube, metal or plastic, with a small opening at one end, and a pressure gauge or transducer at the other end. When airflow passes over the opening, it creates a pressure difference that is proportional to the velocity of the airflow. Pitot tubes are often used to measure airflow in ducts or at grilles and diffusers.
    
    They can also be seen used on aircraft and racing cars.
  • Plumbing Drawings
    Drawings that detail the plumbing systems of a building, including piping, fixtures, and appliances.
  • Point-to-Point Verification
    An activity verifies that a given point device is paired and connected to the appropriate controller, and sensors are correctly calibrated, actuators are properly ranging, and graphic points are connected to the appropriate end device.
  • Post Occupancy Phase
    The phase of a project after the construction has completed, handed-over and the end user has moved in with building/facility operational.
  • Potable Water
    Also known as: 'Drinking Water'
    
    Water that has been treated to the required local standards and is suitable for human consumption.
  • Power Distribution Panel
    Also known as: 'DB, 'Distribution Board'
    
    An electrical device that conntects to a larger single electrical source and then distributes the electrical power to various circuits within the system, usually 'small power'.
  • Power Quality Analyzer
    Sometimes referred to as a PQA, it is a piece of equipment that is used to monitor and analyze the performance of electrical equipment that is being functionally tested and commissioned.
    
    The power quality analyzer is usually installed temporarily to watch, log and capture data for future reporting of electrical voltages, current, and harmonics.
  • PQA
    PQA stands for 'Power Quality Analyser' and is used to monitor and analyze the performance of electrical equipment that is being functionally tested and commissioned.
    
    The PQA is usually installed temporarily to watch, log and capture data for future reporting of electrical voltages, current, and harmonics.
  • Pre-Commissioning
    Commissioning tasks and activities completed prior to the commissioning and functional testing stage of a project.
  • Pre-Construction
    Pre-Construction is a stage within the commissioning process [Stage 3a] where tasks and activities are completed prior to the 'construction' works onsite.
  • Pre-Functional Testing
    Testing and checks conducted on plant, equipment and systems prior to the full functional testing taking place.
  • Pre-Startup Checks
    Pre-Startup checks are completed on plant, equipment and systems prior to being energized and powered/'started up' to ensure they are ready.
  • Precipitation
    A product of condenstation that falls from the atmosphere in the form of water, hail or snow.
  • Pressure Reducing Valve
    Also known as: 'PRV'
    
    A device that reduces the pressure of a fluid, such as water or gas, to a predetermined level.
  • Pressure-Dependant Ventilation
    A ventilation system or peice of equipment that adjusts the airflow rate based on the fluctuation of its pressure at the inlet.
  • Prime Contractor
    Also known as: General Contractor, Main Contractor.
    
    The Prime Contractor will be responsible for the overall communication, management, programming, purchasing, employing contractors/vendors, planning, installation, inspections, commissioning and handing over of a construction project.
    
    They will be supported by the overall project team including, consultants, vendors, suppliers and contractors.
    
  • Procedure
    Something that specifies the execution of a series of tasks or processes.
  • Professional Engineer
    Also known as: ‘PE’.
    
    An engineer who has obtained a state board of registration licence to practise engineering, proving proficiency in their field.
  • Progress Report
    A document that is issued periodically issued [daily/weekly/monthly], providing an update on the progress of the tasks and activities that are needed to complete the project/works.
    
    Will cover progress on the process, documentation, offsite works, onsite works, hand over materials, observations, issues and risks.
  • Project Documents
    Written or printed materials that provide specific information or instructions for a project, such as contracts, specifications, and drawings.
  • Project Manager
    Also known as: the PM
    
    A project manager is employed by a client, general/main contractor, vendor, and or subcontractor to oversee, plan, develop, procure and progress to completion certain elements or packages of a construction project ensuring that they are executed inline with the clients and project requirements/scope.
    
    There will usually be a team of people and companies working under the project manager to aid there works.
  • PRV
    Also known as: 'Pressure Reducing Valve'
    
    A device that reduces the pressure of a fluid, as it passes through it, such as water or gas, to a lower pre-determined level.
    
  • Pump
    A device that is used to move fluid/gas by mechanical force, such as water or air.
  • Punch List
    A list of items/issues and deficiencies that are usually noted during the onsite inspections and require to be corrected or completed by the project team.
    
  • Quiet Fan
    A fan designed to produce minimal noise during operation.
  • Rainwater
    Natural precipitation that has not been contaminated by human activity or interferance.
  • Range
    The upper and lower boundaries of an instrument's capacity to measure the calibrated range of values.
  • Rate of Return
    Profit earned on an investment over time, represented as a percentage of the initial investment.
  • RCx Plan
    Also known as: Retro-Commissioning Plan
    
    A document outlining the structure, responsibilities, timetable, methodology, resource allocation, and documentation requirements for the commissioning process of an existing building.
  • Re-commissioning
    Commissioning an existing building/facility that has previously been through a commissioning process.
  • Reciprocating Pump
    Moves liquid via cycling a crankshaft linked to a cylinder with a piston or 'plunger'.
    
    As the crankshaft completes a cycle the piston moves up and down within the cylinder, providing one suction and one discharge per 'stroke'.
  • Reclaimed Water Process
    The process of turning sewage from a city or industrial wastewater into water that may be utilized again for other things such as agricultural watering, town use, industrial reuse are a few examples of reuse types (unplanned potable reuse).
  • Recycled Water Process
    The process of turning sewage from a city or industrial wastewater into water that may be utilized again for other things such as agricultural watering, town use, industrial reuse are a few examples of reuse types (unplanned potable reuse).
  • Refrigeration System
    A system that cools a fluid, such as air or water, by using a refrigerant, typically for the purpose of air conditioning.
  • Request for Information
    Also known as: 'RFI'
    
    When there are any questions regarding the project or information requiring to be answered officially, the contractors, suppliers and vendors will raise this document and send to the client team for official response.
    
  • Request for Inspection
    Also known as: 'RFI'
    
    Usually sent by email as a template, when an onsite inspection is required [delivery, installation, startup, commissioning] to allow the team to organize the required resources.
  • Request for Quotation
    Also known as: 'RFQ'
    
    This is a document that will be issued detailing the tendering process that will be deployed for a project and package.
  • Responsibility Assignment Matrix [RAM]
    Also known as: Responsibility Matrix
    
    A Responsibility Assignment Matrix is a table formed of columns and rows that simply and clearly identifies tasks, deliverables and activities within a particular project process and who will be responsible for completing them.
  • Responsibility Matrix
    Also known as: Responsibility Assignment Matrix [RAM]
    
    A Responsibility Matrix is a table formed of columns and rows that simply and clearly identifies tasks, deliverables and activities within a particular project process and who will be responsible for completing them.
  • Retro-commissioning
    Also know as RCx.
    
    Commissioning works completed within an existing live building/facility that has not previously been commissioned.
  • Retro-Commissioning Plan
    Also known as: RCx Plan
    
    A document outlining the structure, responsibilities, timetable, methodology, resource allocation, and documentation requirements for the commissioning process of an existing building.
  • Return Air Grille
    A ventilation opening located in a duct, ceiling or wall that allows air to be removed from one area to another or through a system.
  • RFI [explanation 1]
    Also known as: 'Request for Inspection'
    
    Usually sent by email as a template, when an onsite inspection is required [delivery, installation, startup, commissioning] to allow the team to organize the required resources.
  • RFI [explanation 2]
    Also known as: 'Request for Information'
    
    When there are any questions regarding the project or information requiring to be answered officially, the contractors, suppliers and vendors will raise this document and send to the client team for official response.
    
  • RFQ
    Also known as: 'Request for Quotation'
    
    This is a document that will be issued detailing the tendering process that will be deployed for a project and package.
  • Rotary Pump
    A rotary pump uses 'screws' or 'gears' to move the liquid.
    
    The liquid fills the spaces between the 'screws' / 'gears' on the suction side and is carried over to the discharge side where is forced out into the system.
    
    Usually used where the liquid being pumped has lubricating properties, such as oil.
  • Safety Valve
    A device that automatically releases excess pressure within a system, to prevent damage or injury.
  • Self Testing
    Testing that is completed by the main/general contractor, vendors, suppliers and contractors, prior to inviting the clients commissioning agent on a system and or piece of equipment ensuring it meets the project and testing procedure expectations.
    
    This will save any reworking and claims from the consultants if they attend a test and it fails.
  • Sequence of Operation
    Also known as: 'SOO'
    
    A narrative explaining the planned operation of a facility's mechanical, electrical, and energy management systems, usually in logic format.
  • Service Level Agreement
    Or sometimes referred to as an SLA.
    
    A contractual agreement between a building owner and a service provider that stipulates the performance and conditions of the facility that are to be met.
  • Service Provider
    A company that manages the day-to-day running of a facility in line with a service level agreement, on behalf of the building owner.
    
    This can cover maintenance, cleaning, security, food and beverage, and transport.
  • Site Commissioning
    Functional testing of equipment and systems conducted onsite.
  • Site Sampling Kit
    A ‘site sampling kit’ is used when needing to conduct, analyse and record water quality on site.
    
    They can be used to measure the following:
    
    - Iron
    - pH
    - TDS
    - Conductivity
    - Temperature
    - Alkalinity
    - Glycol
    - Nitrates
    
  • SLA
    Or sometimes referred to as an Service Level Agreement.
    
    A contractual agreement between a building owner and a service provider that stipulates the performance and conditions of the facility that are to be met.
  • Smoke Detector
    A device that detects the presence of smoke and sends a signal to the fire control panel for it to initiate a fire alarm, as a warning of a potential fire.
  • Solar Panel
    A device that converts sunlight into electricity, used as a renewable energy source.
  • SOO
    Also known as: 'Sequence of Operation'
    
    A narrative explaining the planned operation of a facility's mechanical, electrical, and energy management systems, usually in logic format.
  • Specification Sheets
    Documents that provide detailed descriptions of the materials, equipment, and workmanship required to be purchased and installed for a particular aspect of a building project.
  • Specifications
    Documents based upon the owners project requirement document and basis of design, that are written by the project consultants to provide clear documented requirements that should be adhered to by the contractors, suppliers and vendors, when purchasing, sourcing, delivering, installing, inspecting, setting up, commissioning and handing over equipment and systems within a construction project.
  • SRCx
    Also known as: 'Supported Retro-Commissioning'
    
    A procedure that allows long-term, remote monitoring of the outcomes of RCx projects, as well as mentorship and training for building management and maintenance workers.
  • Standard
    A mandatory characteristic, activity, or outcome.
  • Standby Generator
    A device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy, used as a backup power source or for supplying power to buildings if the utilities supplies are interuppted.
  • Start-Up Test
    Following the approved procedure or manufacturer specifications, its a test, after power has been provided, that verifies the component or system is ready to proceed to its automated operation.
  • Static Test
    Static testing is performed on mechanical systems prior to energization of pumps, whilst they are in a 'static state' etc. 
    
    Types of testing would be pressure testing or cleaning and flushing of the pipework systems.
  • Static Testing
    Testing that is conducted by the contractor to get systems ready prior to the commissioning agent witnessing activities.
    
    This testing would usually include:
    
    •	Weld Testing
    •	Pressure Testing
    •	Pipework Flushing and Cleaning
    •	Dead Testing of Cables
    
  • Structural Drawings
    Drawings that detail the structural elements of a building, including foundations, walls, beams, and columns.
  • Sub Contractor
    Employed by the general/main contractor for a particular section of works within an overall construction project, the Sub Contractor will supply materials, resources and labour to physically install systems, equipment, components and instruments on site.
  • Substantial Completion
    When the works associated with a construction project or part of a construction project are fully complete, handed over and available for the owners/clients occupancy and use.
  • Supplier
    Also known as: Vendor
    
    Usually employed by the client or general/main contractor is a company that provides a service, materials, equipment, and or resources for a price.
  • Supply Air Grille
    A ventilation opening located in a duct, ceiling or wall that allows conditioned air to be distributed to a space.
  • Supported Retro-Commissioning
    Also known as: 'SRCx'
    
    A procedure that allows long-term, remote monitoring of the outcomes of RCx projects, as well as mentorship and training for building management and maintenance workers.
  • Suspended Solids
    Small solid particles that are found suspended within water [example: chilled, condenser, heating].
    
    These can be sand, filings from installation activities, plankton, dirt, grease, microbes.
  • System Balancing
    The process of adjusting a building's ventilation or hydraulic/water systems and equipment to ensure that they are operating at optimal efficiency and effectiveness, and the flow rates are inline with the design.
  • System Integration
    The process of combining the operation of a building's various systems and equipment to ensure that they work together effectively, inline with teh design.
  • Systems Manual
    A document that focuses on the systems, containing the O&M Manuals and extra information useful to the owner and building employees for operating and maintaining the facility.
  • Systems Performance Testing
    Evaluation of the dynamic function and operation of equipment and systems utilizing manual or automated monitoring techniques and either passive observation or active operation testing.
  • T.A.B.
    Acroynm for ’Testing Adjusting Balancing’
    
    Testing, Adjusting and Balancing uses calibrated testing instruments, equipment and sensors to measure, adjust and set the design flow rates for the heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, mainly focusing on the water and air within a building/facility.
  • Tags [Commissioning]
    Usually used in data center commissioning. They are colored tags that are attached to equipment and systems at differing stages of the commissioning process to clearly display to and record their progress.
    
    •	Level 1 - Red tag
    •	Level 2 - Yellow tag
    •	Level 3 - Green tag
    •	Level 4 - Blue tag
    •	Level 5 - White tag
    
  • Technical Query
    Also known as: 'TQ'
    
    Similar to ‘Request for Information’, this document will be raised when there are any questions regarding the project or information requiring to be answered officially, the contractors, suppliers and vendors will raise this document and send to the client team for official response.
  • Temporary Load Bank
    A temporary load bank is a piece of equipment that is used to simulate a specified load condition on electrical equipment to aid proving its operation prior to the complete permanent system being available.
    
    They are also used to simulate heat within a data hall / server room to help prove the cooling capacity of a system.
  • Terminal Unit
    A device that conditions and distributes air to a specific zone or space within a building, such as a room or office, usually positioned at the end of a system. A good example is a 'Fan Coil Unit'
  • Test Procedure
    A protocol that specifies testing techniques, pass criteria, personnel, and expectations for components, equipment, assemblies, systems, and system interfaces.
  • Test Zone
    The part of an overall system or building that is under test.
  • Testing
    The manipulating, measuring, and documenting of a system and equipment parameters to ensure its operation meets the specification and design requirements.
  • Testing Adjusting & Balancing
    Also known as: ‘T.A.B.’
    
    Testing, Adjusting and Balancing uses calibrated testing instruments, equipment and sensors to measure, adjust and set the design flow rates for the heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, mainly focusing on the water and air within a building/facility.
  • Testing Instrument
    A device used when testing plant, equipment and systems to take applicable measurements required for proof of operation.
  • Thermostat
    A device that controls the temperature in a building by monitoring spacial or system temperatures and turning heating or cooling equipment on or off as needed.
  • Total Cooling Load
    The calculated heat load of a building/space, usually in Kilowatts [KW], taking into account the following:
    
    •	External heat transfer through fabric [walls, ceilings, roofs, floors, glazing, doors],
    •	Internal occupant/people generated,
    •	Internal general equipment loads,
    •	Internal IT equipment loads,
    •	Internal lighting loads,
    
  • Total Iron
    There are many forms of iron that can be found within the water of a system [rust, ferrous, ferric and complexed].
    
    Total iron is all these types added together.
    
    It is an important measurement as if the measurement is to high the water can seriously affect the operation of a system and its components.
  • TQ
    Also known as: 'Technical Query'
    
    Similar to ‘Request for Information’, this document will be raised when there are any questions regarding the project or information requiring to be answered officially, the contractors, suppliers and vendors will raise this document and send to the client team for official response.
    
  • Training
    To allow the building operating and facilities staff to understand the systems and operate the building efficiently, they will require to be trained.
    
    The contractor will be responsible for this by providing training materials, in person training, recordings and reports.
    
    The training materials should be written and provide so that they can be referred to and used for any future requirements the building operators may have.
    
  • Transformer
    A device that increases or decreases the voltage of an electrical alternating current, used to change the incomming power supply voltage from the utility service to the lower voltage needs of a building/facility.
  • Trend Logging
    A diagnostic technique that uses data collected at short intervals, such as every 15 minutes, to assess the performance of a building or one of its systems.
  • Uninterruptible Power Supply
    Also known as: 'UPS'
    
    A device that provides fast temporary power, via its batteries, to a system or building in the event of a power outage. Used to prevent interruption of critical systems such as hospitals, data centers, laboratories etc.
  • Upblast Fan
    A type of exhaust fan that discharges air upwards, typically used in roof-mounted applications.
  • UPS
    Also known as: 'Uninterruptible Power Supply'
    
    A device that provides fast temporary power, via its batteries, to a system or building in the event of a power outage. Used to prevent interruption of critical systems such as hospitals, data centers, laboratories etc.
  • User Interface
    Also known as: 'Dashboards'
    
    'Real-time' systems that measure and show a buildings performance such as general building comfort, energy consumption, and operational and maintenance factors.
  • USGBC
    USGBC is short for 'United States Green Building Council'
    
    USGBC is devoted to revolutionizing how buildings are planned, built, and operated through LEED, the world's most extensively used green building system.
  • Utilities
    Utilities refer to any incoming services to a building such as Water, Electric, Gas and Fibre for the internet.
  • Validation
    [Similar to Witnessing.]
    
    When an experienced/knowledgeable person, usually employed by the client, from an independant company, attends, oversees, observes and validates the startup and testing that is conducted and documented onsite by the project vendors, contractors and suppliers to ensure it meets the project requirements.
  • Value Engineering
    Value Engineering consists of analysing a design and/or construction information to understand if any modifications or changes can be made to help save money and or time on a project.
  • Vendor
    Also known as: Supplier
    
    Usually employed by the client or general/main contractor is a company that provides a service, materials, equipment, and or resources for a price.
  • Ventilation
    The process of supplying and removing air from a building, to maintain air quality, temperature and humidity for the comfort of the occupants and users.
  • Ventilation Duct
    Usually made of galvanised metal, a ventilation duct is used to convey air through a ventilation system.
  • Wall Mounted Fan
    A fan that is mounted on a wall, usually of the Axial variety and typically used to circulate air in smaller spaces or provide spot ventilation.
  • Water Heater
    A device that is used to heat water for domestic or industrial use, such as drinking, cooking, laundry, washing, bathing and industrial processes.
  • Weekly Report
    A report issued each week, detailing the current progress of a projects tasks and activities.
  • Whole Building Commissioning
    The systematic process of verifying and documenting that a building's systems and equipment are designed, installed, and functioning according to the owner's project requirements, from the design phase through the start-up and operation of the building.
  • Witnessing
    When an experienced/knowledgeable person, usually employed by the client, from an independant company, attends, oversees, observes and witnesses the startup and testing that is conducted and documented onsite by the project vendors, contractors and suppliers to ensure it meets the project requirements.
  • Work Order
    An order provided to a contractor, supplier or vendor for building/system repairs or troubleshooting derived from the maintenance management system or processes of the building owner.
  • Working Drawing
    A Working Drawing is a fully coordinated, dimensioned, detailed and scaled drawing, usually created by the main/general contractor team based upon the design drawings, and used by the installation teams onsite to plan, purchase, install and commission an installation, ensuring that upon handover it meets the project and clients objectives and expectations.
    
    Prior to handover of the project the drawings will further be updated to ‘record/as built drawings’.
  • Y Split Duct
    A ventilation duct that splits into two branches, allowing for multiple air paths from a single fan system.
  • Zip Tie
    A small, plastic strap with a ratcheting mechanism, used to secure cables, wires, or other objects together.